heinrich ii england

heinrich ii england

The first of three Angevin kings of England, he expanded the Anglo-French domains and strengthened the royal administration. This was the writ of Novel Disseisin (i.e., recent dispossession). Short Biography. Henry II brought Eleanor out France and into England in July 1174, keeping her imprisoned for the rest of his life. Two developments had come in since William the Conqueror’s day: the occasional mission of royal justices into the shires and the occasional use of a jury of local notables as fact finders in cases of land tenure.  © A result of this was the celebrated collection of decrees—the Constitutions of Clarendon (1164)—which professed to reassert the ancestral rights of the King over the church in such matters as clerical immunity, appointment of bishops, custody of vacant sees, excommunication, and appeals to Rome. Henry invaded England in 1153, and King Stephen agreed to accept him as coadjutor and heir. The young king lacked visible majesty. Geoffrey, Count of Brittany and son of Henry II of England, dies in an accident at a medieval tournament. He was already Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou, and became Duke of Aquitaine when he married Eleanor of Aquitaine, the former queen of France. In addition, the assizes gave fast and clear verdicts, enriched the treasury and extended royal control. His sons were pardoned, but Eleanor was kept in custody until her husband died. Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (French language: Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England (1154–89) and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany. This system presupposed regular visits by the King’s justices on circuit (or, in the technical phrase, “on eyre”), and these tours became part of the administration of the country. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. Henry was the son … Although the claim of his mother, Matilda, daughter of Henry I, to the English crown had been set aside by her cousin, King Stephen, in 1152, Henry advanced his fortunes by marrying the beautiful and talented Eleanor, recently divorced from King Louis VII of France, who brought with her hand the lordship of Aquitaine. Henry II of England 1154-1189. The next day the King of Scots was taken at Alnwick, and three weeks later Henry had suppressed the rebellion in England. A similar writ of Mort d’Ancestor decided whether the ancestor of a plaintiff had in fact possessed the estate, whereas that of Darrein Presentment (i.e., last presentation) decided who in fact had last presented a parson to a particular benefice. He also ruled as Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, and Count of Poitiers, Anjou, Maine, and Nantes, and was overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. Henry the Young King (28 February 1155 – 11 June 1183) was the eldest surviving son of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine.Beginning in 1170, he was titular King of England, Duke of Normandy, Count of Anjou and Maine.Henry the Young King was the only King of England since the Norman Conquest to be crowned during his father's reign, but was frustrated by his father's … Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Note: Valiant soldier, tireless administrator, ``always gentle and calm in times of urgent peril,'' loved and was loved by his people. His quarrels with the archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket, and with various family members (including his son, Richard the Lionheart) ultimately brought about his defeat. The king retreated to Ireland to escape Pope Alexander III’s wrath. Kings. His career may be considered in three aspects: the defense and enlargement of his dominions, the involvement in two lengthy and disastrous personal quarrels, and his lasting administrative and judicial reforms. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Heinrich had 6 siblings: John I King of England, Wilhelm der Normandie and 4 other siblings. Henry II of England (March 5, 1133 – July 6, 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, and as King of England (1154–1189) and at times controlled parts of Wales, Scotland, Ireland, and western France.His sobriquets include "Curt Mantle" (because of his short cloak), "Fitz Empress," and sometimes "The Lion of … In Ireland, reputedly bestowed upon him by Pope Adrian IV, Henry allowed an expedition of barons from South Wales to establish Anglo-Norman supremacy in Leinster (1169), which the King himself extended in 1171. A doubt of guilt was settled by ordeal by battle; the accused in the shire underwent tests held to reveal God’s judgment. Zeitweise beherrschte er Wales, Schottland, das östliche Irland und das westliche Frankreich. Henry was born at Le Mans in north west France on 4 March 1133. And he instituted the Assize of Clarendon, in which the procedure of criminal justice was established. Henry of Normandy (1155-1183) 2. Henry II of England, also known as Henry II Curtmantle (Le Mans, France, 5 March 1133 – Chinon, France, 6 July 1189) was also Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. With Louis the relationship was ambiguous. Updates? Henry reconciled himself with the church, but royal control over the church changed little. King Henry II: Artist's Impression ca 1620. Of these, the four sons who survived infancy—Henry, Geoffrey, Richard, and John—repaid his genuine affection with resentment toward their father and discord among themselves. Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (French: Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, was King of England from 1154 to his death. Of stocky build, with freckled face, close-cut tawny hair, and gray eyes, he dressed carelessly and grew to be bulky; but his personality commanded attention and drew men to his service. He reigned from 1154 to 1189 and founded the Plantagenet dynasty of English rulers. His territories are often called the Angevin Empire. (See Catal. When Stephen died the following year Henry succeeded without opposition, thus becoming lord of territories stretching from Scotland to the Pyrenees. He was one of the most powerful German princes of his time, until the rival Hohenstaufen dynasty succeeded in isolating him and … By conquest, through diplomacy, and through the marriages of two of his sons, he gained acknowledged possession of what is now the west of France from the northernmost part of Normandy to the Pyrenees, near Carcassonne. Among these was the King’s council of barons, with its inner group of ministers who were both judges and accountants and who sat at the Exchequer, into which the taxes and dues of the shires were paid by the King’s local representative, the sheriff (shire-reeve). This success was obscured for contemporaries and later historians by the varied and often dramatic interest of political and personal events, and not until the 19th century—when the study of the public records began and when legal history was illuminated by the British jurist Frederic William Maitland and his followers—did the administrative genius of Henry and his servants appear in its true light. Of his five sons, only Richard and John survived his death on July 6, 1189. Henry began publicly displaying his great love and favorite, Rosamund, in 1174. Henry took a personal interest in the technique of the Exchequer, which was described at length for posterity in the celebrated Dialogus de scaccario, whose composition seemed to Maitland “one of the most wonderful things of Henry’s wonderful reign.” How far these royal servants were responsible for the innovations of the reign cannot be known, though the development in practice continued steadily, even during the King’s long absences abroad. By the multiplication of a class of experts in finance and law Henry did much to establish two great professions, and the location of a permanent court at Westminster and the character of its business settled for England (and for much of the English-speaking world) that common law, not Roman law, would rule the courts and that London, and not an academy, would be its principal nursery. ahnentafel. The Assize of Clarendon (1166) established procedures of criminal justice, establishing courts and prisons for those awaiting trial. 19,870, and Plate.) His marriage in 1152 to Eleanor of Aquitaine, whose marriage to Louis VII had recently been ann… Henry II (1133–1189) was crowned king of England in 1154. Arrest was a local responsibility, usually hard upon a flagrant crime. In 1153, he crossed to England to pursue his claim to the throne, reaching an agreement that he would succeed Stephen on his death, which occurred in 1154. The council contained an unusually able group of men—some of them were great barons, such as Richard de Lucy and Robert de Beaumont, earl of Leicester; others included civil servants, such as Nigel, bishop of Ely, Richard Fitzneale, and his son, Richard of Ilchester. In any case, the long-term results were very great. Henry II, first of the Angevin Kings, was one of the most effective of all England's monarchs. They have been chosen as highlights of a particular topic, but do not represent the full range of images that are available on Commons. The ministers who engaged upon these reforms took a fully professional interest in the business they handled, as may be seen in Fitzneale’s writing on the Exchequer and that of the chief justiciar, Ranulf de Glanville, on the laws of England; and many of the expedients adopted by the King may have been suggested by them. Two other practices developed by Henry became permanent. This provided a system of criminal investigation for the whole country, with a reasonable verdict probable because the firm accusation of the jury entailed exile even if the ordeal acquitted the accused. In 1169, an Anglo-Norman force landed in Ireland to support of one of the claimants to the Irish high kingship. Read more. Henry was defeated and forced to give way, and news that John also had joined his enemies hastened the King’s death near Tours in 1189. Henry II of England Henry II of England. It was thus, a few years later, that he came into conflict with the bishops, then led by Becket, over the alleged right of clerics to be tried for crime by an ecclesiastical court. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS King Henry II was born March 5, 1133, in Le Mans, France. Henry II, byname Henry of Anjou, Henry Plantagenet, Henry FitzEmpress, or Henry Curtmantle (Short Mantle), (born 1133, Le Mans, Maine [now in France]—died July 6, 1189, near Tours), duke of Normandy (from 1150), count of Anjou (from 1151), duke of Aquitaine (from 1152), and king of England (from 1154), who greatly expanded his Anglo-French domains and strengthened the royal administration in England. William Plantagenet, Count of Poitiers (1153-1156) 2. Restless, impetuous, always on the move, regardless of the convenience of others, he was at ease with scholars, and his administrative decrees were the work of a cool realist. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so. Throughout his adult life Henry’s sexual morality was lax; but his relations with Eleanor, 11 years his senior, were for long tolerably harmonious, and, between 1153 and 1167, she bore him eight children. Henry now had problems within his own family. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Henry became Count of Anjou and Maine upon the death of his father, Geoffrey of Anjou, in 1151. In 1150 - 1151, Henry became ruler of Normandy and Anjou, after the death of his father. 19 Aug 1186 CE. Determined to assert his rights in all his lands, Henry II reasserted the centralized power of his grandfather, Henry I, in England. Henry II "Curtmantle" of England (5 March 1133-6 July 1189) was the King of England from 19 December 1154 to 6 July 1189, succeeding Stephen of Blois and preceding Richard the Lionheart.Henry II's inheritance of England and vast areas of France made him one of the most powerful rulers in Europe.He expanded his possessions further in Ireland and … Upon the death of Edward III, the 10-year-old Richard succeeded to the throne. He could be a good companion, with ready repartee in a jostling crowd, but he displayed at times an ungovernable temper and could be heartless and ruthless when necessary. He is the father of King Richard He inherited the throne from his mother, the daughter of King Henry I. Scroll below and check our most recent updates about Henry II Of England Net Worth, Salary, Biography, Age, Career, Wiki. In feudal courts the trial by battle could be avoided by the establishment of a concord, or fine. Henry II, Plantagenet Empire.png 322 × 376; 26 KB Pipe roll 1174 record type.jpg 1,809 × 1,000; 469 KB Spinello Heinrich as the Doge's prisoner.jpg 602 × 464; 129 KB Henry II (King) of ENGLAND `Curtmantle' (`Courtmanteau'); d' ANJOU (ANGEVIN); FitzEMPRESS; PLANTAGENET. established by Henry II of England, Duke of Normandy, Count of Anjou, comprised of half of France, all of England, parts of Ireland and Wales anglo saxons The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century. King Stephen agreed to accept Henry as his coadjutor and heir. Trial of those accused was reserved to the King’s justices, and prisons for those awaiting trial were to be erected at the King’s expense. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Henry II ruled as King of England, Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. News that John had also turned against him hastened Henry's death on 6 July 1189. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Henry the Lion (German: Heinrich der Löwe; 1129/1131 – 6 August 1195) was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, from 1142, and Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, from 1156, the duchies which he held until 1180.. Classic editor History Talk (0) Share. Henry was born at Le Mans in north west France on 4 March 1133. Henry II of England, also known as Henry II Curtmantle (Le Mans, France, 5 March 1133 – Chinon, France, 6 July 1189) was also Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. Besides disrupting the public life of the church, this situation embroiled Henry with Louis VII and Alexander III; and, though it seemingly did little to hamper Henry’s activities, the time and service spent in negotiations and embassies was considerable, and the tragic denouement in Becket’s murder earned for Henry a good deal of damaging opprobrium. Above all stood the King’s right to set up courts for important pleas and to hear, either in person or through his ministers, any appeal. His quarrels with Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, and with members of his own family ultimately brought about his defeat. Er war der erste der angevinischen Könige, die auch als das Haus Plantagenet bezeichnet wurden. One was scutage, the commutation of military service for a money payment; the other was the obligation, put on all free men with a property qualification by the Assize of Arms (1181), to possess arms suitable to their station. Henry II Louis supported Alexander III, whose case was strong, and Henry became arbiter of European opinion. Henry II of England (1133–89), reigned from 1154; Henry II of Jerusalem and Cyprus (1271–1324), reigned from 1285; king of Jerusalem in name only from 1291; Henry II of Castile (1334–79), reigned 1366–67 and from 1369; Henry VI of England (1421–71), reigned 1422–1461 and from 1470 as a King of England, and reigned from 1422 to 1453 as Henry II, king of France Richard's father, Edward, Prince of Wales , died in 1376, leaving Richard as heir apparent to his grandfather, King Edward III . This page has been archived and is no longer updated. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. Some, indeed, were under the feudal overlordship of the king of France. Image from. Henry II’s plans to divide the Angevin “empire” among his sons led to many quarrels and wars. Omissions? In 1157 Henry invaded Wales and received homage, though without conquest. The marriage of Count Geoffrey to Matilda, the only surviving legitimate child of Henry I of England, was part of a struggle for power during the tenth and eleventh … His continental dominions brought him into contact with Louis VII of France, the German emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa), and, for much of the reign, Pope Alexander III. The quarrel with Becket, Henry’s trusted and successful chancellor (1154–62), broke out soon after Becket’s election to the archbishopric of Canterbury (May 1162). In the course of his reign, Henry had dominion over territories stretching from the Ireland to the Pyrenees. Henry's now began to restore order. Henry II of England: Grants to Reading Abbey: 1154-1184. His father was Count of Anjou and his mother Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England. As a remedy Henry established the possessory writ, an order from the Exchequer, directing the sheriff to convene a sworn local jury at petty assize to establish the fact of dispossession, whereupon the sheriff had to reinstate the defendant pending a subsequent trial at the grand assize to establish the rights of the case. Henry acquired most of the Continental possessions that would expand the kingdom of England before he became king in 1154. After receiving a good literary education, part of it in England, Henry became duke of Normandy in 1150 and count of Anjou, Maine, and Touraine on the death of his father, Geoffrey Plantagenet, in 1151. More dangerous were the domestic quarrels, which thwarted Henry’s plans and even endangered his life and which finally brought him down in sorrow and shame. Henry was born on March 5 1133, in Le Mans, Sarthe, Pays de la Loire, France. The Archbishop, after an initial compliance, refused to accept these, and they were throughout the controversy a block to an agreement. tree. His remarkable achievements were impaired, however, by the stresses caused by a dispute with Becket and by discords in his own family. Corrections? Media in category "Coins of Henry II of England" The following 51 files are in this category, out of 51 total. Four or more generations of descendants of Henry II of England (1133-1189) if they are properly linked: 1. Moreover, Henry’s decrees ensured that the judge-and-jury combination would become normal and that the jury would gradually supplant ordeal and battle as being responsible for the verdict. Pleas brought to feudal courts could be delayed or altogether frustrated. v., no. At the beginning of his reign Henry found England in disorder, with royal authority ruined by civil war and the violence of feudal magnates. His sons - Henry, Geoffrey, Richard and John - mistrusted each other and resented their father's policy of dividing land among them. Richard joined the protest of the others and was supported by Eleanor. He was the third of five sons of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine and … This is a misnomer, for Henry’s sovereignty rested upon various titles, and there was no institutional or legal bond between different regions. Henry II of England (1133-1189) 2. King of England from 1154, Henry strengthened royal administration but suffered from quarrels with Thomas Becket and his own family. The feud with Louis implied friendly relations with Germany, where Henry was helped by his mother’s first marriage to the emperor Henry V but hindered by Frederick’s maintenance of an antipope, the outcome of a disputed papal election in 1159. Matilda of England (1156-1189) 3. Early in his reign Henry obtained from Malcolm IV of Scotland homage and the restoration of Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmorland, and later in the reign (1174) homage was exacted from William the Lion, Malcolm’s brother and successor. BBC © 2014 The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. King Louis VII of France made him Duke of Normandy in 1150. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Henry, the great-grandson of William the Conqueror, was the first of the House of Plantagenet to rule England. Henry II of England King of England, 1154-1189. He issued the Constitutions of Clarendon, which restricted ecclesiastical privileges and curbed the power of church courts. Four knights took his words literally and murdered Becket in Canterbury Cathedral in December 1170. Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux , was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. When Stephen died the following year, Henry succeeded without opposition, thus becoming King Henry II of England. Henry II faced significant backlash in both England and Europe over Thomas’s asassination. The feudal regime introduced by the Normans added courts of the manor and of the honour (a complex of estates). Regius Professor of Modern History, University of Cambridge, 1954–63. Matters were eased by the death of Geoffrey (1186), but the King’s attempt to find an inheritance for John led to a coalition against him of Richard and the young Philip II Augustus, who had succeeded his father, Louis VII, as king of France. This not only made Henry powerful but also the head of a large empire, called the Angevin Empire. 1188 CE - 1189 CE. Those at Westminster dealt with private pleas and cases sent up from the justices on eyre. His reign was a sharp contrast to the anarchy under Stephen and led to the English Common Law. Now archbishop of Canterbury, Becket refused to comply. British Library: referencedIn: Johanna, Queen of Sicily, daughter of Henry II. He inherited the duchy of Normandy in 1150; succeeded his father as count of Anjou, Maine, and Touraine in 1151; and in 1152, marrying Eleanor of Aquitaine, acquired Aquitaine, Gascony, Poitou, and Auvergne. In 1170 he crowned his eldest son, Henry, as co-regent with himself; but in fact the young king had no powers and resented his nonentity, and in 1173 he opposed his father’s proposal to find territories for the favoured John (Lackland) at the expense of Geoffrey. Richenza von Braunschweig (1171-1210) 4. After his death in 1199, John ascended the throne. Henry met Rosamund at some point in 1166, and it is thought his publicly favoring Rosamund was an attempt to instigate Eleanor into requesting a divorce. Thomas Becket being murdered by four knights in Canterbury Cathedral on December 29, 1170. In 1164, Henry reasserted his ancestral rights over the church. On July 12, 1174, he did public penance at Canterbury. He was the first king of the House of Plantagenet. Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of …

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